What every fan should keep in mind – when reading something about Michael Jackson –  is what the MAN himself told us in words/verses and have an idea how music industry works.  Then, Michael Jackson words become crystal clear.

Michael Jackson was not a newbie, neither naive nor ignorant. He knew the business very well. He grew up in the music industry and saw the music industry grew up with him. He did know everything, but sadly be aware of what surround you, sometimes it’s not enough to win a war.


MJ and his brothers left Motown Records and signed on with CBS Records in 1975.  According to John Branca, after “Off The Wall”, he negotiated for MJ a separated contract and a new agreement with BMI, a company that collects artists royalties coming from the public performances of the songs (relating publishing, not recording royalties).

CBC ctr

Immediately after “Thriller” MJ had been involved with ET production and sang the storybook of the movie. This resulted in a lawsuit between Universal and CBS as reported by media of that time.

Et - 2

Meanwhile “Thriller” became the biggest selling album in music history.


Again, according to Mr. Branca deposition in the IRS case, during the period of the “Thriller” project, MJ contract had been renegotiated several times and one of the benefits he got, was to gain the ownership of his master recording, including his previous album”Off The Wall”. 123By 1989 and 1990, Michael was becoming increasingly influenced by David Geffen. The closeness of Mr Branca with the then  CBS Records Group president Walter Yetnikoff (shortly after replaced with Tony Mottola) and Geffen interference, might had been some of the reasons that caused John Branca replacement with three specialist attorneys: Allen Grubman (to handle negotiations with his record company), Lee Phillips (music publishing), and Bertram Fields (litigation). In fact, was Fields and  Grubman who negotiated with CBS Michael Jackson new contract conditions.

Actually, it was reported that Michael was unhappy with his CBS contract, which John Branca was trying to renegotiate for many months. Reportedly Michael was threatening to move to another label during his contract dispute with CBS (CBS that later became Sony).

In 1988 CBS Records was renamed Sony Music Entertainment when the Japanese company bought it, together with a host of subsidiaries, including Epic Records, MJ’ label. As Lynton Guest worded in his book, “Michael Jackson became entangled with the Sony Corporation almost by accident”.

In March 1991 media reported worldwide of MJ renewed contract with Sony and “inside sources,” revealed he was guaranteed an advance payment of $5 million per record plus a 25% royalties from each album, based on retail sales. The contract bridged records, movies, and video software. It was also reported a 15 years contract and 6 albums to provide, plus a certain number of video/movies  (http://articles.latimes.com/1991-03-21/news/mn-654_1_michael-jackson).

Media mixed up the renewal of MJ recording artist agreement signed on December 31, 1990, with the new joint- venture between MJ Venture – a company owned by Michael Jackson – and Sony Software Corporation set up on January 1th, 1991. This new J&V served to improve the exploitation of a broad range of services and specifically recording, videos, movies, theatrical and television projects.

mj recording agreement


To recap: “Off The Wall, Thriller and Bad” were recorded, produced and distributed, with Epic label under CBS wings, and “Dangerous” arrived when Sony had already control of the company and the label. That’s interesting to outline…

The screenshot below is coming from Greenburg book, a source considered “reliable”. Actually, it appears to be a suitable tale to show Mr. Branca’s “representative skills”. Michael Jackson and Mr. Branca separated, from the summer of the ’90 until ’93. So the “mid 90” period sounds a bit too general. Especially because the Operating agreement of Sony/ATV tells an amendment was made in 1994, and definitely had Mr. Branca  “signature”, being back on board.

o mall

The few examples described above, are a warning to help fans to understand how confusing, unclear and imaginative, the information is given by the media, resulting in a wrong and manipulative news. Unfortunately most of the fans sites and blogs, duly report those kinds of news as reliable source creating timelines that have nothing to do with facts.

Let’s get into some history of how artists contract with record labels were and how evolved: it’s no secret songwriters, producers, and other creative talents were tremendously ripped off in the early parts from the ’20s through the ’50s and ’60s.

In the ’60/70 artists signed the contract in terms of years: 1 years with an option of further four. Artists looked at those contracts, thinking that they had a five-year contract with a record company but actually it was not the case. The record company didn’t have to pick up the second year.

In fact, what most of the artists might not have seen in the following pages, was a provision that stated that during that contract year, the record company had the right to record one album on the artist, but they also had an option within that first year to ask the artist to record a second album. And if the artist didn’t deliver that second album within that one-year period, that one-year period was extended until they did complete the second album.

Between 1950 and 2000, the recording contracts were very confusing, possibly intentionally confusing and definitely non-transparent. It was very hard for artists reading contracts and be able to figure out how they were going to get paid and what their actual royalty rates were, the key provisions, the terms, how long the contract lasts, the various types of royalties they were entitled, the advances and the myriads of clauses helping them to get more confused.

Then with the advent of MTV, videos became very popular, and record companies decided that it was not the case to have an artist to release an album per year, but every two or three. They wanted to put out a video on each single and make three or four singles on an album over the course of two years. The album sales would continue over a two-year period and the videos broadcast.

In the ’90s –  after some lawsuits brought up to record companies –  there was a change in that provision and the term “year plus” became “period“, which meant that the first period would be the time it took to record and release an album plus some months, to let the record companies check the album reception in the marketplace, before they would pick up the option for the second period. And during each period, the artist was required to record one album. “Six of one and half a dozen of the other”! There was no real difference between the two thingsArtists were still bound to an 8 to 10 periods for contracts that were a very long period of time.


We all remember when Prince stopped going by the name “Prince” and just went by a symbol. Prince was the first vocal example of what was happening between artists and record companies.


He went on the Today Show and had “slave” written on his face. His point was that he felt that record companies signed artists with long agreements and were treating them like slaves due to the exclusive rights to their recording services for such an extended period of time, and he was asking the artists community to really start advocating for more fairness, more transparency!

Prince signed his first contract in 1977. And this contract didn’t end until he negotiated a settlement in 1995 with Warner Brothers Records. At that time, he still owed two albums to them.

That gives some kind of an idea of the length of the contracts and why artists, were really upset about provisions that required them to stay with one company for such extended period of time and possibly their whole career. In 1995 Prince then was able to release one single, “The Most Beautiful Girl in the World,” through an independent distributor, Al Bell’s Bellmark Records. 


Credit: Photo by Brian Rasic / Rex Features  PRINCE

That record became very successful. It was what the industry calls a “one-off”. After he ended his contract with Warner Brothers Records, Prince became known for being the one artist who could have one-offs with various major record labels. In short, he could have released albums with different companies each time. Very few artists could do that, but his example gave the possibility of that happening.

Then, the major labels first offered to sign a six-album contract. And it was the ability of the artist attorney to wisely say no and negotiate with record companies a lesser number. Nevertheless, was the record company that had the right to pick up the option. Record companies wanted the right to pick up the options because they claimed to invest a lot of money over the artist in recording, producing, marketing, distributing the record. So they had the right of trying to get some profit from that initial investment…

Contract negotiation key it always comes down to the artist leverage. If the artist has sold a lot of products, if he is very popular and become a very important asset to the record company, he’s in a position to negotiate better terms. And MJ had a lot of leverage and surrounded by a bunch of lawyers in double-breasted suits. Right?

So, that’s how the record companies dealt with artists. And we can easily understand that Michael Jackson dispute with Sony Music started long before then the “Invincible” production; it might have to do already with the History album, followed by Blood On The Dance Floor, Ghosts short film distribution and many other projects with Columbia Pictures that didn’t go in the right way.

The exclusive recording services mean that whoever makes that mechanical reproduction and distributes it – usually the record company – has to get a  license for the mechanical reproduction from the publisher of that particular song. The publishers do that by issuing licenses to the record company to be paid for the mechanical royalty, the sale, and distribution of the recordings of their songs. Usually, the transference of ownership clauses sound like this:

contract clause


That mechanical royalty rate is $0.091 per copy for recordings under five minutes or $0.0175 cents per minute for recordings over five minutes. It’s a substantial amount if considering that MJ wrote songs that really have been and still are big hits.

Just image a song like “Billie Jean” which is 4:54 minutes long that sold and still sells millions of copies. Here the example:

  • $0.091 per copy, for 1 million of copies, you’re entitled to $91,000. That’s what the publisher gets paid. Under a co-publishing and administration agreement, the songwriter gets 75% of the $91,000 or roughly about $68,000. Now that’s just for one single.
  • Add these numbers to an album that sells a million copies. $910,000 in mechanical royalties alone and to the songwriter $680,000.

That’s why the mechanical right is such an important right to the songwriter and still possibly the top income generating right for the popular songwriter. By retaining some or all control of the creative output the artist is in a position to maximise its earnings throughout the career. And Michael Jackson knew the mechanism very well.

However, MJ was untangled with Sony due to the Sony/ATV partnership and in an agreement for the “master license deal”. That’s mean the label take 15-25% of all licensing earnings. This secures the master license revenue to the label while allowing the artist to retain the majority revenue and the control of his master recordings, being free to take it away from the record label and get into the distribution agreement with another or even sell it.

Impossible not to notice that something is wrong if we put together the 2002 news spread worldwide during MJ “Invincible war” where tabloids and music critics were picturing a Michael Jackson mad and angry because he could not get his masters recording back then from Sony.

I have noticed that MJ own Estate appears comfortable with Media news. In Fact, looking at the many inaccuracies they have written in the pre-trial memorandum of the ongoing IRS case (see capture below), I believe that this example, together with many other examples, show the origin/source of the tabloid ‘s narratives.

irs pre trial

Besides the fact that the “Invincible” album contains 16 songs and not 14, the comments concerning the sales are untrue and totally tasteless. Actually, figures revealed on November 11, 2001, tell that  “Invincible” had sold  4.4 million copies worldwide – in just 2 weeks. Became #1 spot on charts in countries around the world including the U.S., U.K., Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherland, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey. (not to mention the 13 million+ copies worldwide and 2 platinum disks).

Moreover, the pre-trial memorandum contradicts  Mr. Branca’s  claim made in his deposition on February 7, 2017, which is:

fine sony

In the above caps, Mr. Branca asserts that during 2002 his work with MJ diminished steadily due to the many new advisers, counselors appeared in Michael life. However, he claims that immediately after the album Invincible his firm was involved in renegotiating MJ agreement with Sony and they got him the “opportunity” to get out of the Sony contract quickly because he didn’t want to be at Sony anymore. So they addressed “certain things”…

Attorney Marty Singer was engaged in the Sony contract settlement. However what Mr. Branca omits to tell to the judge that MJ grew suspicious of him due to an embarrassing “conflict of interests”  in rendering his legal services to Sony.  Michael Jackson sent him a termination letter on February 2nd, 2003 and it seems that one of the reasons was this “conflict of interests”.


Here below briefly described a timeline of the “Invincible” events. (no gossip)  It will help to form your own opinion:

  • June 06, 2001: News hit the world that Michael has completed the recording of a new album: what we did not know was that it would be his last studio album with unreleased material.
  • June 13, 2001: Producer David Gest announced the “Michael Jackson: 30th Anniversary Celebration, The Solo Years” CBS announced they would have broadcast the mega event in fall as a two-hour special.
  • June 15, 2001: Sony Music and Michael Jackson confirmed the final release date for “Invincible” for September 25, 2001, later it will be postponed to October 29, 2001. (30 for the US).
  • June 19, 2001: “You Rock My World” to be the first single to be released from the forthcoming album.
  • June 28, 2001: At the end of June Jay-Z, brought Michael Jackson onstage during a break in his performance at “Hot 97 Summer Jam 2001”. Although Michael didn’t perform, just his presence was enough to elicit the loudest pop of the night.
  • July 11, 2001: it was announced that “You Rock My World”, the first single of “Invincible” will not be commercially released in the U.S.A. 
  • August 01, 2001: Michael launched his official website with own domain, www.michaeljackson.com.
  • August 17, 2001: Michael’s long-awaited first single of”Invincible”, “You Rock My World” premiered on the US radio station “Jammin 105.1”. “An unidentified source leaked the song to the radio without authorization from Sony Music or Michael Jackson and the entire album was leaked and available on Sony Russian site over a month before the official worldwide release. 
  • August 30, 2001: Michael Jackson, opened up the NASDAQ stock market.


  • September 06, 2001: Michael Jackson made a surprise at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York where the MTV Video Music Awards were being held and appeared on stage as part of ‘NSync’s performance of the song “Pop”.
  • September 07 and 10, 2001: Michael Jackson played two amazing shows at Madison Square Garden.


  • September 20, 2001:“You Rock My World” hit the US Billboard Charts at # 10 – a huge accomplishment for a single that is not available commercially and is based on airplay points alone.
  • September 20, 2001: Some of America’s biggest pop stars led by Michael Jackson, recorded a single – “What More Can I Give” – raise money for the victims’ families and survivors of last week’s terrorist attacks in New York. ( according to Mark Shaffel, one of the reasons Sony did not give permission to release the song was the difficulties to get all the artist licenses and they felt it was counterproductive for the Invincible promotion).
  • September 21, 2001: Michael Jackson’s “You Rock my world” short film premiered throughout the world [with the exception of the U.S.A.].
  • September 26, 2001: the clip premiered on TRL in the U.S.A.
  • October 08, 2001: Michael Jackson’s first single of “Invincible”, “You Rock My World” hit the stores.
  • October 21, 2001: www.cc.com confirmed that Michael would have performed at RFK Stadium in Washington, DC at “United We Stand – What More Can I Give –  to raise money in support of the recovery efforts from the September 11th attack on America.
  • October 15, 2001: all four re-issues [“Off The Wall”, “Thriller”, “Bad”, “Dangerous”] containing previously unreleased material plus a new booklet with new photos, were officially released. 
  • October 21, 2001: Michael took over the stage again, performing “Man In The Mirror” and “What More Can I Give”.”United We Stand: What More Can I Give?” raised about $ 2 million through the sale of more than 46’000 tickets.


  • October 29, 2001: Michael Jackson’s first studio album in six years, “Invincible” had officially been released [US release date: October 30]. The album is available in five different colors covers for a limited time.
  • November 01, 2001: ABC sealed a deal with event producer Clear Channel Entertainment to air the “United We Stand” special on.


  • November 08, 2001: Mega event on at New York’s Time Square: Jackson fans gathered in the streets surrounding the Virgin Megastore, where the King of Pop emerged on a small stage covered with red carpet. 


  • November 11, 2001: figures revealed: as of then, “Invincible” had sold an astonishing 4.4 million copies worldwide – in just 2 weeks!”#1 spot on charts in countries around the world including The U.S., The U.K., Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey.
  • November 12, 2001: “Greatest Hits: HIStory Volume I” had been released [US release date: November 13].The disc feat. 15 remastered greatest hits and 72 minutes of music.
  • November 14, 2001: Invincible in preliminary ratings released. “Michael Jackson: 30th Anniversary Celebration” had tumbled the competition, including ABC’s “NYPD Blue” – garnering an 18 percent share of the TV audience. Michael Jackson’s 30th Anniversary concert special draw a record 25.7 million American viewers this Tuesday, November 13th, on CBS.
  • December 03, 2001: “Cry”, the second single release of “Invincible” had been commercially released. The release feat the previously unreleased track “Shout”. (Sadly, it would prove to be the last single release of “Invincible”. The single was not commercially released in the U.S.A., instead “Butterflies” should have been commercially released but it was canceled later).


  • December 05, 2001: radio station KIIS-FM announced a special appearance of MJ at “KIIS-FM’s Jingle Ball”, on December 19, 2001, at Staples Center, Los Angeles.
  • December 05, 2001: the NAACP Image Awards announced six nominations for Michael Jackson’s new album and the “30th Anniversary” for next year’s NAACP Image Awards.
  • December 21, 2001: Michael Jackson made a special appearance at “KIIS-FM’s “Jingle Ball” in Los Angeles, receiving the “Lifetime Achievement Award”.
  • December 30, 2001: it was announced that Michael will attend the “American Music Awards” next year, and be awarded the “Artist of the Century Award”.


  • January 10, 2002: Michael Jackson made a special appearance at the “29th Annual American Music Awards” and was presented with the “Artist of the Century” Award. As Jackson took the stage to a standing ovation, he thanked a long list of people, including actor Marlon Brando – “my other father” – and then split. Acts who perform on the earlier show generally do not get invited to the more prestigious Grammy Awards in February, putting Michael in a fix. He had initially backed out of the American Music Awards altogether, prompting show producer Dick Clark to file a $ 10 million lawsuit against Grammys boss Michael Greene for unfair competition.
  • January 17, 2002: it was announced that Michael’s vocals are used on “It’s Not Worth It” – a brand new song off Brandy’s new album titled “Full Moon”, due in stores March 05, 2002.
  • February 09, 2002: Michael Jackson made a brief appearance alongside Elizabeth Taylor at the “Art for AIDS” fund-raiser held at Laguna Art Museum in Laguna Beach, California.
  • February 11, 2002: the “16th Annual Soul Train Music Awards” announced that Michael Jackson is nominated in the category Best R&B/Soul Album, Male for “Invincible”.
  • February 13, 2002: it was announced that Michael Jackson, Sting, Barry Manilow and Randy Newman are amongst the latest names to be inducted into the “Songwriters Hall of Fame”.
    February 23, 2002:  Michael won three awards [out of six nominations] at the “33rd Annual NAACP Image Awards” which took place at the Universal Amphitheatre, Universal City, CA. Michael won for Best Variety Special: “Michael Jackson: 30th Anniversary Celebration”, Best Performance in a Variety Special: “Michael Jackson: 30th Anniversary Celebration” and Best Music Video: “You Rock My World”. However, Michael did not attend the ceremony.
  • February 26, 2002: Michael Jackson’s Neverland Entertainment invested $ 15 million – $ 20 million in Mark Damon’s production and distribution company MDP Worldwide, making Michael and his new producing partner Raju Patel major shareholders in the company
  • March 29, 2002: Michael Jackson made a special live performance at the “American Bandstand 50th Anniversary” TV special.
  • April 11, 2002: Michael’s participation to the Democratic National Committee’s “Every Vote Counts” event that will take place in New York City on April 24 at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem.


  • April 21, 2002: Michael Jackson performed “Dangerous” at the “American Bandstand 50th Anniversary” TV special in Pasadena, California. He did his “Dangerous” performance twice. The show was aired on May 05th on the ABC network.


  • April 24, 2002: Michael Jackson rocked the US Vote giving a rare performance to launch a campaign aimed at persuading United States citizens to register to vote. Jackson was greeted by an enthusiastic crowd at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem, New York. The concert raised almost $3m for the Democratic National Committee.

Shortly after news changed and culminated with Michael paraded in New York City and in London on a double-decker holding up Mottola pictured as “devil” and big posters with written “Sony sucks” and “Sony Kills music”.


His Fandom supported him and manifested their disappointment for the poor marketing of Invincible all over the world.

The main reason for Michael been mad so much at Sony was much deeper and weighty than a reversion of the masters recording: Michael had most of his royalties rights pledged with Bank of America. These incomes had to be put in accounts to guarantee the payments of the interests of the loan itself. And his royalties and Sony/ATV revenues were not credited or just partly credited into the accounts where it was supposed to be.

MJ himself said his royalties were not into the account.

To recap Mr. Branca’s deposition (see the capture below), in the ’80 MJ obtained the master recording ownership from Sony but due to the exclusive distribution agreement, the masters were still heavily linked to Sony. Looking at the Media narrative since from the ’90 up to 2009 I cannot find any hardcore evidence of the master’s allegedly been reverted back to Michael’s possession. Some articles say 2009, others say 2011, 2012.  That shows the usual Media incompetence and lack of research.

Court probate documents do state “joint venture and distribution rights“. This confirms that the MJ Estate owns the master’s, and still have a Joint Venture with Sony for the distribution rights. So, I wonder: why Sony had so much control over the Masters when Michael was alive?


maszers 2

Mr. Branca said that despite an ownership of a wholly 100% of the master recording, Sony held a percentage deducting the advances given to MJ. I’m afraid I’m not buying it.

“Advances” are another contractual provision and should be kept and recorded separately in the accounting records”

Sony accounting “bad habits” it’s not even big news: Michael Jackson lawyer Marty Singer explained in summer 2002 that they were considering suing Sony Music for questionable accounting practices, breach of an agreement and fiduciary duties.  Attorney Singer said they had asserted claims against Sony such accounting claims concerning the under-reporting of revenues to Michael Jackson as well as other alleged improper accounting practices, that could have been worth hundreds of millions of dollars.

One of his representatives said that he believes Sony may have wanted Michael to fail so the company could have had more leverage in a dispute involving his joint-publishing venture, Sony/ATV, which owned the Beatles catalog and was valued at close to a billion dollars.  The dispute related to more than claims involving the recording agreement. It was also related to their business relationship in the publishing venture, which was Sony/ATV.

One of Sony’s lame excuses to justify the suspension of the Invincible album marketing was actually the word “advance“. But what is the mechanism of the advances in an exclusive recording contract with a records label? And how Records companies Screw artists out of Royalties?

How did Sony screw financially Michael Jackson? Crucial points were the unclear and convoluted clauses of the Sony ATV agreement. Stay with me for the second part where this subject will be touched.


  • John Kellogg, Music Business Second Legal Aspects
  • Digital Technology and the Allocation of Ownership in the Music Industry. The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 09/228, Department of Economics, University of Bristol.
  • Transaction Costs Determinants of “Unfair” Contractual Arrangements. American, Economic Review, Klein B.
  • Court Document – Prescient Acquisition
  • https://futureofmusic.org/article/article/major-label-contract-clause-critique
  • http://www.michael-jackson-trader.com/biography/invincible-years.html
  • www.TeamMichael.com  (Branca depositions)


  1. Nice blog and very informative. Good for old and new fans to have the right information. I posted the link on my Instagram page and will share much as possible. Love this. We need to have this kind of information in order to understand and how to respond to others.

  2. Pingback: The 2006 "New York Time" Stream Of Drivel On Michael Jackson Finance. - Michael Jackson - The Other Side Of Midnight

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